The star’s new role will incorporate producing, songwriting, mentoring the label’s artists and seeking out new talent.
The 32-year-old, who had previously been signed to Def Jam, will also release his fifth studio album this year with Motown.
“I’m honoured that I’ve been given such a prestigious title,” he said.
The singer added he felt “terrified” taking over a role that ‘King of Motown’ Smokey Robinson had previously occupied.
“These are big shoes to fill. But trust, I can handle it,” Ne-Yo said.
Motown’s chief executive officer Barry Weiss said: “This move to Motown will provide new and inspiring challenges for Ne-Yo as both an artist and a key member of the new senior management team that is taking form at the label in 2012.”
Ne-Yo released four albums with Def Jam, earning a total of 4.3m record sales in the US, according to Nielsen SoundScan.
His debut record, which was released in 2006, featured his first number one single So Sick.
His 2008 album Year of the Gentleman reached number two in the UK, with the single Closer topping the singles chart.